Dendrochronology 2/2

Let us now continue on the importance of tree species to be able to utilize dendrochronology at its optimum use. The history of dendrochronology is rich and the last part of this article will focus on the study in the medieval history as well as the present studies and innovation as regards the said technique. Truly indeed, the said process is very useful in all ways that anyone can capitalize on this kind of technique of identifying the age of the wood.

growth ring

Importance of Tree Species: Not all trees can be utilized or measured without added analytical procedures; this is because of the fact that not all trees have cambiums that manifests yearly. In tropical regions, for example, yearly growth rings are not regularly formed, or growth years are not related to years, or there are particularly no rings at all.

Evergreen cambiums are irregular and do not accumulate on a yearly bases. On the other hand, trees in Arctic, sub-arctic and alpine regions react differently depending on the age of the tree. Older trees have minimal water efficiency which in turn may result in a minimal response to temperature changes. A recent attempt to utilize analysis of tree rings on olive trees justified that too much variation of the cambium manifests in olives to make dendrochronology viable.

Emergence of Dendrochronology: Tree dating has been regarded as one of the  earliest dating processed used in archeology, and it was invented by archeologist Clark Wissler and astronomer Andrew Ellicott Douglas in the early decades of the 20th century. Douglass paid close attention in the history of climatic variations manifested in tree rings. Basically, it was Wissler who suggested using the method to specify when adobe pueblos of the American southwest were constructed.

The Beam Journey: Archeologist Neil M. Judd is recognized with convincing the National Geographic Society to put up the first Beam Expedition, in which log sections from occupied pueblos, prehistoric ruins, and mission churches from the American Southwest were recorded and gathered together with those living from the ponderosa pine trees. The width of the tree rings was matched and cross-dated, and by the early 1900s, chronologies were dated back to nearly five hundred years.

A Closer look at the History in Building a Sequence. Over several hundred years or so, sequences on tree rings have been constructed for several species all over the globe with the longest to-date consisting of more than twelve thousand (12,000) years in Central Europe completed on oak trees conducted by Hohenheim Laboratory and a nine thousand year long bristlecone pine wood sequence in California. But accumulating a chronology of climate change in a region at the present time is not regarded privately on tree ring widths.

B&W growth ring

Components like elemental composition called dendrochemistry, wood density, stable isotopes captured within its cells and the anatomical wood features have been utilized in relation with traditional tree ring width analysis to study air pollution effects, changes in soil acidity, and uptake of ozone through time.

A present dendrochronological study of wooden building rafters and artifacts within the Medieval town of Lubeck, Germany is an example of an array of ways the method can be utilized. The medieval history of Lubeck includes several important events that are relative to the study of forests and rings as well as laws passed in the 12th and 13th centuries coming up with sustainability guidelines which resulted from the black death (two big fired in 1251 and 1276 and a population decline between 1340 and 1430).

Construction emerges at Lubeck and are marked by the detailed use of younger trees, which alarmed demand outpacing the capability of the forests to replenish; busts like after the Black Death decreased the population, are linked by a long period of less to no construction at all, together with the use of adult and very old trees.

In some of the lucrative houses, the wood rafters utilized during construction were cut down at different periods, some ranging from more than a year; while other houses were cut down at the similar time.

Dendrochronology - 1/2

The first part of this two-part presentation will open your eyes to the importance of this process. It is very useful in all ways to determine the age not only of the tree, but on the wooden furniture and items as well.

Dendrochronology is the process of analyzing patterns of tree rings in wood to be able to know the specific age of the wood. It has been utilized for a long period of time in scientific research like archeology and geography. It can also be utilized to know when a wooden furniture or instrument was made. Auction houses, historians and violin appraisers utilize it to determine the wood quality as well as the age of furniture and instruments like violins, cellos and violas.

History tree

The process of dendrochronology initiates by scrutinizing spruce top of the wood, or a violin for instance or high resolution digital photos of the items. Foe each year a tree lives, one layer develops below the bark of the tree which creates a ring. Tree rings consists of double layers of wood, a “lighter” early wood and the “darker” late wood. The importance and distinction of each layers varies and is dependent on rain, soil and light that the tree was exposed year round.

In other words, dendrochronology is the scientific term for tree-ring dating. It is the formal way that utilizes growth tree rings as a specific record of climatic changes in a region, as well as a way to estimate the construction date for wooden furniture.

As archeological processes go, dendrochronology is practically accurate: if the tree rings in the furniture are preserved and can be tied within the exisiting chronology, researchers can basically specify the accurate calendar year and often season where the tree was cut down to manufacture the item. Because of that accuracy, dendrochronology is utilized to measure radiocarbon dating, by supplying science a measure of the atmospheric conditions which are prone to varying radiocarbon dates.

Radiocarbon dates which have been calibrated or measured by contrasting dendrochronological records are regarded by acronyms like cal BP, or calibrated years before the present.

On the other hand, Tree ring dating works because a tree grows bigger not only in terms of height but it also accumulates girths in measurable rings in its lifetime. The rings are considered the cambium layer, a ring of cells that lie between the bark and wood from which a new bark and wood cells begin; each year, a new cambium emerges which leaves the old one in place. The cambium’s cell is measured as the width of each tree ring.

Environmental effects in to the cambium are initially regional climatic variations, aridity, soil chemistry and changes in temperature which altogether are scrutinized as variations in the width of a specific ring, in the wood structure or density or in the chemical composition of the call walls. In truth, during dry years, the cambium’s cells are smaller and thinner layers will manifest as compared to wet years.

reclaiming history

On the next part of this article, we will discuss the importance of tree species and the emergence of dendrochronology as an essential process.

The Most Ideal Wood for Beginners

The idea here is to know your wood. Wood is comprised of cellulose fibers bound together with an element called lignin. It can be classified as softwood or hardwood, basically depending on the class of tree from where it originates.  Further, new growth wood or sapwood on a tree is still alive. On the other hand, heartwood refers to the part of the tree that has already stopped functioning. These two classes of wood also have several uses and features. Knowing a lot about the different woods can aid you in finding out which to utilize, how to work the wood, and what issues to anticipate, and more importantly, the proper maintenance and care of the finished wood product.

reclaim old woodd

There are tons of different types of wood and trees, with a broad array of colors, grain, figure, density and other features that affect its application and workability to several elements of uses. The following is a description and listing of some of the more popular woods utilized in woodworking.

·         White Ash. This is an inexpensive but durable wood that has light color texture  and bends well. White ash is utilized as sports equipment like canoe paddles, baseball bats. It is also used in tool handles, pool cues, and other items that need strength and durability.

·         Balsa Wood. This is considered to be one of the lightest hardwood, balsa wood has been utilized for model building, canoes, rafts and other scenarios where a buoyant, light wood is required. It is basically white in color and prices vary depending on the country. This is extremely soft and can be worked with hand tools. Durability of this type of wood is a bit questionable.

·         Basswood. This is also a versatile but cheap hardwood that is frequently used for  woodcarving. It is light, soft, fine textured and colors manifest from light to dark brown. It is also used for making kitchen utensils, toys and crates.

·         Birchwood. This wood is also known as paper birch. It is a white tree growing in wild forest and its bark peels like paper every now and then. It has creamy sapwood and darkens toward the heartwood. This is probably one of the most famous woods with beginner furniture makers because of its cost-efficiency. It can also be utilized in making toys, plywood, and cabinets. It will tend to weaken when it is left unfinished.

·         Butternut Wood. A course textured which is light in color. This is commonly use for veneers, church altars and woodenware.

·         Aromatic Cedar. This is unique in its red shade. The aroma is somehow spicy yet pleasing. More commonly known as red cedar, is a famous woodworking material for closets and containers. It has light and dark alternating colors and may also have dark knots, making it an eye candy especially after finish.

·         Cherry Black Wood. The sapwood is light in color but the heartwood does vary from light brown to dark burgundy color. The wood grains look appealing and it is often used in cabinetry.

Grain wood

These types of woods are the best for beginners in the woodworking industry. There more to discover in terms of woodworking.

Primary and Secondary Forests: the differences to know.

Rainforest do exist in temperate climates!

They are rainforests in many countries and while popular belief is that they exist only in tropical climates, they also do temperate climates, including in the United States, Russia or Canada. Rainforests grow thick canopied thanks to the abundant rainfall, which create an amazing diversity of both vegetal and animal species, In temperate climates, there isn't however that characteristical humidity of tropical rainforests as they grow with different parameters such as latitude, altitude, flooding or types of soil. These forests come up with a mosaic of vegetation classes, a diversity found nowhere else and....that shall be protected at all costs. Sadly, the famous case of the Amazon forest whose size is shirking at a fast pace every year is happening in many other places such as Indonesia, where Kaltimber is located.

The "primary forest”, humanity's biodiversity's vault

Rainforests are also called "Primary Forests" thanks to their pristine untouched vegetation because unaffected by any human activity. Primary full ceiling canopy and multiple layers of understory are prevalent in primary rainforests. The ground floor is basically clear of heavy vegetation because the above canopy allows limited sunlight penetration, the lifeline of plants growth. Periodically, when trees fall, the canopy opens and allows the growth of plants. Primary forests are considered to be the most biologically diverse class of forests and to the surprise of many, they still exist in Europe.


Secondary Forest, a human-caused definition.

On the other hand, secondary forests are rainforests that have been disturbed by human activity in a way or another. Secondary forests often become so because of logging activity for agricultural purposes and are characterized by a minimal canopy structure, less diversity and smaller trees. As a result of a lighter canopy, more warmth and light will reach the floor which supports ground vegetation's growth.

Secondary Forest, Ecuador (Austin State University, 2016)

Secondary Forest, Ecuador (Austin State University, 2016)

Based on studies, from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, it was estimated that primary forest comprises about 1/3 of the total forest area. However, they are rapidly decreasing at a rate of 6 million hectares each year because of intensive logging, usually focusing on the harvesting of a couple of tree species in a particular area.

Botanists do not know how long it takes for the secondary forest to reach the levels and structures of biodiversity as primary forest. Studies have shown that trees in the Central Amazon forest, on the average, are several hundred years old, suggesting that primary forests take centuries to grow to the level we are witnessing them today.

Regardless of what class or type of forest we are talking about, what is important is to contribute to nature and buy wooden products bearing the label FSC (Forest Stewardship Council), an international non-profit promoting responsible management of the world’s forests.

Meet Kopral & Shelton!

It’s about time for us to introduce you to Kopral and Shelton, two orangutans that Kaltimber has adopted in May 2018. World NGO Day (27/02/19) coupled with World Wildlife Day (03/03/19) is indeed the perfect time to highlight the amazing work of Borneo Orangutan Survival (BOS) Foundation, who is providing love and care to our “kids”.

Kaltimber is strongly committed in advocating against deforestation, be it for the purpose of logging precious wood species such as ironwood (ulin), or for massive clearing of forest to make space for palm plantations. Kaltimber only process timber reclaimed from old structures such as boats, pontoons or buildings into flooring and decking. Ironwood is one of very popular among timber exporters because of being one of the hardest and most durable timbers in the world. While Indonesia has a total prohibition on export, and cutting is restricted to certain dimension, there is a lot of  illegal logging.

Today, only half of Borneo forest is left and with a “current deforestation rate of 1.3 million hectares per year” (source: WWF), we fear for its future.


We have always looked with a mix of sadness and anger at what is happening to orangutans in Borneo, where  their available habitat to live peacefully and away from humans, has drastically shrinked, statistically increasing the potential for encounterings with humans whenever the primates are looking for food that use to be plentiful in the forest. Such meetings often result in dramatic consequences because the population feel like they have all rights compare to those who were living there way before them.

Kopral and Sheldon were victims of this situation but fortunately BOS Foundation was there to rescue them.  Kopral is a 13 years old male who was kept in a cage by his tormentors. One day, he managed to escape, but while looking for the safety of height and probably looking for a tree that was nowhere to be found, he climbed an electricity pylon that electrocuted him. His arms got burned so badly that the only way to save him was through their amputations.  


Thanks to BOS Forest School, he learned how to climb trees using his mouth and feet and nowadays, Kopral is a dominant man with tough character, but still have lots of friends!

Shelton has nothing less of a sad story but with a similar happy ending thanks to his rescue by BOS. He was found with multiple shot wounds as he probably only looking for food and angered whoever it belonged to. Humans can be very cruel and forgetful of their own responsibility in having orangutans coming closer to their homes and shooting at him was their way to keep wildlife away from “their” property. All the gun pellets were removed, but Shelton’s right eye was too injured to be saved, causing him permanent blindness.


Maybe it is the shared trauma and permanent injuries, but it appeared that Shelton and Kopral are great friends and, while not living in the same quarters anymore, they spend time together during Forest School hours, where all orangutans get the self confidence they need to, when possible, be released back into the forest. This will unfortunately not be the case for our two friends, whom disabilities would put them in danger back in the wild, so their care will require lots of funding.

We would be grateful if you would join us in fostering Kopral & Shelton, but there are many other orangutans you can adopt through BOS. We cannot highlight the amazing feeling we have when receiving news about our orangutans: the progress they make in all aspects of their life, from new friendships to self confidence, really does something to your soul.

Adopt here

Ways to try and identify fake antiques

Fakes have been rampant and have blended with real antiques. If an individual can make money on something, he is often led in to trying to make more by tweaking a little. So what does that mean for all? We need to be cautious and sharp when looking for our old antiques. But the more important question is, how can we tell if what we have is a fake item? There are some parameters for cautious pickers that might help…sometimes.

The first thing that you have to do especially if one is wooden furniture is to spend time with genuine furniture. The more you are familiar with the furniture, its artistry and detail as well as the stroke and grains of wood, there is a slim chance that you will be fooled. Wooden chest furniture from China was mass produced and cheaply made and you can basically see the workmanship is totally different on the real pieces.You will see “straw marks” where the molds were wearing out. Newer wooden furniture will not have those identity marks. Watch out for pieces that appear thicker, a lot grainy that what you would expect. In other words, be careful with pieces that are almost perfect and too good to be true.

School desk with ink

School desk with ink

Wooden furniture with metal or bronze inlays is often embedded irregularly because of time. Some metals are usually made of cast iron with bronze plate. Magnets tend to stick easily with these items. If it sticks, it is definitely not bronze; your wooden furniture might not be an antique.

The next thing that you have to look for is the type of joinery. Antique joinery are very detailed especially in wood furniture. The workmanship is proven to be most of manual work. That is why artistic innovations are very prevalent in these items. If you come across a near perfect joinery, chances are it is not antique. There is also a probability that the process is not manual but machine manufactured. Nowadays, mass produced furniture are machine manufactured.

Another trick is to look the way the piece was made. Again, the joinery should be consistent with its purported place of origin and age. You also have to regard the tool marks and hardware. Patinas are also prevalent on antique wooden furniture. Wear should also be prevalent where it should be. As compared to fake wears that is machine manufactured.

antique wood

Fakers nowadays are extremely good at what they are doing; they often utilize cheap materials or put other elements that make their craft look real. Sometimes, they make a fusion of other elements to make a whole new item. Sometimes, if one is not too keen on inspecting an item, chances are, they might not be able to recognize a fake item. If the item is too expensive, that does not readily mean that it is a real antique. Sometimes, jacking up prices for an item to look real is a scam that a lot of fakers do.

 Just a final word: some fakes were made several years ago. That, in itself makes them antique in their own regard, so be very careful.

STAY TUNED! We will soon publish an article about real and fake reclaim Ulin.

We have a content writer. Would any text published on our blog be yours, please let us know.

Is Eco Friendly Wallet Friendly?

Climate change is a topic we are increasingly familiar with, but too many are still paying more attention to industrialization creating lucrative changes than to the betterment of society. 

The rapid growth of technology as a way to generate more benefits at the expense of our environment is slowly but surely evolving for a better balance between industrialization and environment protection: it's what we call "sustainable development".

That being said, it doesn't mean that we shouldn't embrace technological advancements, but only to try our best in keeping everything it would impact and find ways to mitigate the negative parts. It sounds very cliché to say it, but we only have one planet.  

Still, a time will come that mother earth will have its day of reminding us of the harm it is suffering, and nobody will want to think "what if I had done something".  

A lot of people still think that protecting the environment is solely limited to practising recycling because climate change education isn't always the best, including in what we call developed countries. Recycling is just a small part of as there is much more to being eco-friendly in sustainable development than separating waste. 

When talking about eco-friendly solutions, the first issue we hear is related to their prices: It is true that, for now, a lot of them are too expensive, but it is also true that some of them bring long-term savings (such as solar panels or insulation). We could debate if the question "Is it wallet-friendly?"  is ethical or even logical when talking about our own survival. but we need to accept such thinking and find the best compromise between sustainability and affordability. 

wallet friendly eco friendly

Another common argumentation is that it is the role of the government to take action, but who is the most powerful force driving their decisions? Us, the citizens, and there is nothing better than starting with our home. What can be recycled? What energy savings can I make? Should I buy a new and more fuel efficient car? Do I really need these new things?  The bottom line is that some improvements are cheaper than others, and others can bring long term benefits for both your wallet and nature.

From the recycling of jars and cans to composting your leftover food and planting your own vegetable at home, I possibilities are endless, cheap, and can even save a substantial amount of money!

Then with a bit more of commitment, redesigning or remodelling your home is a great way to be more eco-friendly and make long-term savings.

The most important in sustainability is to understand the big picture, what lies beyond the business bottom line or the weight of your wallet (let's picture how heavy a bank account looks here). Just look around you and you will find your way to positively contribute to the global improvement of our earth's environment.


Ultimately, protecting our ecosystem is a win-win situation and no amount of money should be put in front of any contribution to perpetuating life on Earth and sustain tomorrow's generations but also today's safety. "Wallet-friendly" or not, at the end of the day, even if we are 100% selfish, what is our life worth? 

Planting Your Own Herbs for Healthy Cooking and Sustainable Development

Planting your own herbs in your garden is a convenient and healthy way to flavour your home-cooked meals  

Herbs gardening is not hard at all and usually takes very little space so it is common for people living in apartments to have a couple of herb pots on their balcony. Price is not really the concern as herbs are usually cheap enough if you may compare the price of a few sprigs of sage, basil, or thyme, but you cannot beat the freshness of home-grown seasonings. 

Planting your own herbs simply means that you will be able to get the full flavour, and when appropriate, the optimum medicinal features of the herbs. Indeed, the healing herbs contain substances and volatile oils that would weaken fast as soon as harvested. Same goes with the flavour of seasoning herbs actually. 

Now, talking about convenience, imagine yourself selecting a few fresh herbs from a spot near your kitchen anytime you need it! You also have the liberty of planting your most favourite herb, have a constant fresh stock at hand. Compare this to the effort of going to the grocery store and buying them without any idea of how fresh it is is a very different story. Not to forget how little you know about the potential chemical used to keep them fresh as long as possible.

A small space is enough to grow a lot of different herbs

A small space is enough to grow a lot of different herbs

To ensure convenience, it is best recommended if you reserve a spot in your garden, a few walks from your kitchen door. If you do not possess sufficient space, you can plant the herbs in different sizes of tubs, pots, containers and suitable boxes. A lot of herbs need light, plenty of sunshine, and well-drained soil. For instance, horseradish requires a rich deep soil, while on the other hand, mint likes damp soil, and because of its expansive nature, mint needs more space compared to other herbs. Thus, these herbs are most practical to be planted in a separate location. An old pail with its bottom removed will be an excellent container to isolate them.

Many deco/trendy items are available to get your little herbs farm indoor. We even have reclaimed Ulin pot covers that gives an extra classy touch to your small indoor garden.

In cases where it is inevitable to use containers or pots, the required depth for most herbs is somewhere around 10-12 inches. Smaller herbs will basically fit in containers with a depth of at least 6-8 inches. Some bigger herbs like sage, rosemary, or bay tree will do excellent in much bigger containers.

Right in your kitchen, ready to use!

Right in your kitchen, ready to use!

For effective container growing, efficient drainage is essential and drainage exits should be covered with a lot of fine wire net or broken pot shards. Containers should be disregarded to be put directly on the ground. It should be raised on stones or on tiles. It will help in making sure that your herbs have appropriate drainage, especially during winter when there is a risk of water accumulation. It will also help in preventing frost damages during the cold months.

In order to grow at their optimum condition, herbs would love some compost, especially those which are planted in containers. There are tons of available ready-made compost that you can select from. However, in support of sustainable development, you can basically do your own compost from your food scraps. We invite you to read the 2 parts Kaltimber articles about making your own compost:

Baskets and containers require regular feeding and watering. A complete renewal of compost should also be scheduled every four to five years while transferring them into larger containers. Shallow window-boxes and minimal pots should be changed on a yearly basis. You have to ensure to consider the proper height for each plant to avoid fall over and instability.

Many tutorials are available online to teach you and help you to start this fun in-house farming.

Woodworking and Tools are Inseparable!

There has never been a better time to initialize woodworking hobby. Information and how-to is anywhere, magazines and books everywhere. Add the realm of internet in to all of these and you have tons of choices to gain knowledge from.

One thing that excites individual starting in the woodworking idea is simply the tools and woodworking itself. Newbies does not have any idea what they need. Some people go overboard and purchase everything in sight while other people simply make do with what is in the garage.

 It doesn’t really matter what your pioneer project will be as there are some needed materials that you cannot live without. You don’t need the state-of-the –art power tools when you are a beginner. It is very impractical to go out and purchase a two-grand worth of power equipments just to build a pot case. Listed below are the most needed tools for each and every project you can think of as a beginner:

Processing reclaim hardwood - Kaltimber

Processing reclaim hardwood - Kaltimber

 A dependable and sturdy workbench. While a workbench cannot be regarded as a  woodworking tool, it is a bit of a complex to get things done without it. It does not really matter whether you are doing it yourself or purchase a ready-made; the requirements are basically just the same. Your workbench requires being heavy and stable so you can hit it hard on doing your project. Some benches come with a built-in tool tray or vise. These are efficient but you can do away without them.

A pair of saw. No matter what classification of woodworking are you doing, there is a great chance that you will have to cut wood to the proper size. Do not skimp when you buy these tools. A high quality handsaw will simply do it for you especially when you are a newbie. There are a lot of different saws out there. You just simply have to choose the ones with a comfortable handle bar and a good blade. Begin with a back saw for fine cutting and a rip saw for over all cutting.

Antique handsaw

Antique handsaw

Drill. The ability to drill holes in items you are working on is very important. This woodworking tool will do excellent work as electric screw driver or even a sander, if needed. A cordless drill is an easy tool. You can be able to take it without obstructing your workplace. This is a must-needed device.

 Measuring Tools. You cannot construct a lot without having to measure the sizes of the pieces of wood you are working on. This is the most essential tool you can have, you can saw all you want but if the pieces are not the proper size and shape, you will surely have a problem. Purchase a high quality measuring ruler and your project will surely benefit everyone.

Safety Devices. We all know that as a beginner, woodworking tools can also be dangerous. Always use the safety measures like wearing safety goggles. However, the most essential safety device you will possess is common sense.

There are a lot of general woodworking tools out there that you will surely need as your woodworking odyssey continues, but these should initialize your journey. If you feel the need, just add as you go and try not to purchase tools that will not get you the right project that you need.

Aspects That May Affect the Strength of Wood

Aside from the normal variability of strength within and among species, a lot of other aspects may affect the strength of wood. These aspects may be widely divided in to irregularities and natural defects, aspects in relation to the environment as well as the effects of biological agents.     

When the direction of the grain is not parallel to the longitudinal axis of a wooden element, it is regarded and recognized to be cross-grained or more commonly known as short-grained. Cross grain may manifest from spiral grain in the tree or by the method of which the timber is cut and sawn. In linear parts of furniture like spindles and legs, whose performance depends on longitudinal features like bending resistance, cross grain may result in tremendous loss of strength.  A lose of grain in one out of five may result in about 2/3 reduction in the modulus of rupture. Wooden knots are another crucial weakening defect.

wood weakness

Basically, loss in strength is the results from the distorted cross grain of wood around the knot and the abnormal grain and tissue direction of the knot itself. Compression wood, on the other hand, is a reaction wood formed in conifers as a result of leaning or crooked stems.

In hardwoods, tension wood is weak in compression parallel to the grain.

On the other hand, strength of wood is also affected by temperature. When the temperature is low, the strength of wood is high, and when the temperature is high, the strength is low. But, if exposed to higher as compared to natural temperatures, or with long period of time, it might end up in permanent loss of strength. Effects of heat in lessening the strength are least in dry air but prevalent in moist air.

heartwood split

Strength of wood is also comparable to duration of loading. Time-related creep in wood lessens the strength over long period of loading. A good example is a beam that might carry a short term load three times as heavy as it could carry for long term.

Insects and wood inhabiting entities such as termites, beetles and ants need also close attention as it affects greatly the wood’s strength. Chances are, the strength of wood weakens over time because of the presence of these little monsters. Another major cause of deterioration on wood is fungi. Wood-staining fungi use the residues of stored materials in sapwood cells.

wood pests

Be always on the look out for these factors to avoid deterioration and to avail of the wood’s optimum strength in use.

In Kaltimber we offer long lasting A1 rated ironwood. It s natural constitution makes of it an anti decay and anti termite wood perfect for all outdoor use!